Hepatitis C

What is hepatitis C?

Hepatitis is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus that attacks the liver. Many people who become infected with hepatitis C never feel sick and recover completely. Others get a brief, acute illness with fatigue and loss of appetite and their skin and eyes turn yellow (a condition called “jaundice”). If your body is not able to fight off the virus, you may develop chronic hepatitis which can lead to cirrhosis (liver scarring), liver failure and even liver cancer later in life. Like chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis C is a “silent” disease because often no symptoms appear until your liver is severely damaged.

For a short video this topic, click the image below. 

Video courtesy of Streaming Well and based on UK facts and stats.

The Canadian Task Force for Preventive Health Care (CTFPHC) is developing a guideline for hepatitis C and invites people with hepatitis C from across Canada to contribute by providing feedback on what aspects of hepatitis C are most important to them. People who choose to participate in this study will have the opportunity to learn about how clinical practice guidelines are developed in Canada and will receive an honorarium for their participation.Those who are interested can contact Alekhya Mascarenhas at mascarenhasa@smh.ca for more information.
This opportunity will be available until March 13, 2015.

Canadian Liver Foundation first organization in the world to endorse a declaration calling for global strategies to eliminate viral hepatitis B and C learn more

How do I get hepatitis C?
Who should get tested for hepatitis C?
Who is most at risk of contracting hepatitis C?
What are the symptoms?
If I have no symptoms, how will I know if I have hepatitis C?
Why get tested for hepatitis C?
How do i get tested for hepatitis C?
What to expect when getting tested for hepatitis C
How to interpret what the hepatitis C antibody results mean?
What to do if the hepatitis C antibody test is reactive
Can hepatitis C be treated?
How can I pay for my medication?
How can I avoid getting hepatitis C?

Additional Resources:
Hepatitis C Self-Learning Online Course
PSA featuring Mike MacDonald
Support Research and education programs

How do I get hepatitis C?

Hepatitis C is common worldwide.  An estimated 170 million individuals worldwide including an estimated 250,000 in Canada are infected. Hepatitis C is spread through blood-to-blood contact, which means that to contract hepatitis C, blood infected with the hepatitis C virus must get into your blood stream
You may risk exposure to hepatitis C by using injection drugs (even once), getting tattoos, piercings, pedicures, manicures or medical procedures with improperly sterilized equipment, sharing personal hygiene items with an infected person (e.g. razors, toothbrushes, nail clippers) or having had a blood transfusion or received blood products prior to July 1990.

For a short video this topic, click the image below. 

Video courtesy of Streaming Well and based on UK facts and stats.

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Who should get tested for hepatitis C?

To determine whether or not  you have hepatitis C, you will need to have blood tests. You should consider getting tested if: 
  • you were born between 1945 and 1975 
  • you are worried about having done something that could have put you at risk – even once or a long time ago (see sections entitled ‘How do I get hepatitis C?’ and ‘Who is most at risk’) 
  • you have signs or symptoms of having hepatitis C, such as nausea, fatigue, reduced appetite, jaundice, dark urine or abdominal pain  
  • you have resided in countries where hepatitis C is common (e.g., Egypt, southern Italy, India, Pakistan, Vietnam) and have been exposed to blood products, medical procedures, or   vaccinations.

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Who is most at risk of contracting hepatitis C?

You have a high risk of contracting hepatitis C  if you:

  • use or have used injection drugs; even if it was just once or many years ago 
  • have received blood or blood products or an organ transplant before July 1990 in Canada 
  • have been in jail; or 
  • have been injected or scratched during vaccination, surgery, blood transfusion or a religious/ceremonial ritual in regions where hepatitis C is common.


You have a high moderate risk of contracting hepatitis C if you:
  • have tattoos or body piercing; 
  • have multiple sexual partners; 
  • have a sexually transmitted infection (STI), including HIV or lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV);  
  • have experienced traumatic sex or rough sex or have used sex toys or fisting that can tear body tissue; 
  • have vaginal sex during menstruation;
  • have received a kidney treatment (hemodialysis); 
  • have received an accidental injury from a needle or syringe; 
  • share personal items with a hepatitis C-infected person (e.g., razors, nail clippers, toothbrush); 
  • share cocaine (snorting) equipment; 
  • have another infectious disease (e.g., hepatitis B, HIV); 
  • were born to a hepatitis C infected mother; or 
  • have a sexual partner infected with hepatitis C.


Hepatitis C is not passed from person to person by:

  • coughing, sneezing; 
  • touching or shaking hands with an infected person; 
  • sharing food, drinks, or eating utensils; 
  • using toilet seats; 
  • hugging or kissing; 
  • other casual contact; 
  • breastfeeding unless your nipples are cracked and bleeding; or 
  • oral sex, unless blood is present.


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What are the symptoms?

When you have just become infected with the hepatitis C virus, you may have no symptoms and may not even know you have been infected. This is the acute infection phase and can last from six to eight weeks, or longer. If you have symptoms, they are usually mild and may include fatigue, lethargy, nausea, reduced appetite, abdominal pain and jaundice.

Over time, the virus may disappear on its own, and you are no longer infected. This happens to approximately 25 out of 100 hepatitis C-infected people. If the virus does not disappear after six months, your infection is chronic. This happens to approximately 75 out of 100 hepatitis C-infected people.
If your hepatitis C is chronic, in three out of four cases, you will have only very mild to moderate damage to your liver over time.  However, in one out of four cases, chronic hepatitis C can lead to more serious problems including cirrhosis, liver failure and liver cancer over a period of 25 to 30 years.

You are more likely to develop cirrhosis if you drink alcohol, are obese, are male, became infected after age 40, have another type of liver disease or have another chronic infection, such as HIV or hepatitis B in addition to hepatitis C.


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If I have no symptoms, how will I know if I have hepatitis C?

To determine whether or not you have hepatitis C, you will need to have blood tests. (see section entitled ‘Who should get tested?)

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Why get tested for hepatitis C?

  • An estimated 250 thousand Canadians have Hepatitis C, but many don’t know it. 
  • Approximately 75% of people who are infected develop chronic infection and about 25% will clear their infection on their own. 
  • People with Hepatitis C often have no symptoms. Many infected people live for up to 20 or 30 years without feeling sick. When or if symptoms appear during the late stage of infection, they often reflect serious damage to the liver. 
  • Hepatitis C is a leading cause of cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver transplants. 
  • New treatments can cure Hepatitis C and prevent further liver damage and improve health outcomes.  

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How do I get tested for hepatitis C?

Ask your health care provider for a simple blood test to determine if you have the virus.

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What to expect when getting tested for hepatitis C

  • The initial screening test is a blood test that looks for antibodies to the Hepatitis C virus. This test is also called a Hepatitis C Antibody Test. 
  • Ask your doctor when and how you will find out your results
  • Test results will take a few days to a few weeks to come back.
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How to interpret what the hepatitis C antibody results mean?

If the test result is NON-REACTIVE/NEGATIVE

  • A non-reactive or negative antibody test means that a person is not currently infected with the Hepatitis C virus. 
  • If the test result is REACTIVE/POSITIVE 
  • A reactive or positive antibody test means a person has been infected with the Hepatitis C virus at some point in time. 
  • Most people who get infected with the virus, stay infected with Hepatitis C. This is known as chronic Hepatitis C. However, some people, about 25%, are able to get rid of or ‘clear’ the virus without treatment. 
  • Once people have been infected, they typically have antibodies to hepatitis C in their blood for life.


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What to do if the hepatitis C antibody test is reactive

  • If the Hepatitis C Antibody Test is reactive, a person needs an additional test to see if the Hepatitis C virus RNA is present in his or her blood to confirm that they are still infected. 
  • If the Hepatitis C RNA test is:

Negative—this means a person was infected with Hepatitis C, but the virus has now been cleared from his or her body. This person is no longer infected.
Positive—this means a person has Hepatitis C and is currently infected.

If a person has a reactive antibody test and a positive Hepatitis C RNA test, he or she needs to talk to a doctor experienced in treating Hepatitis C to be monitored and to discuss treatment options. 

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Can hepatitis C be treated?

Most people with acute hepatitis C  have no symptoms. If you do have symptoms, they will likely be mild and may include fatigue, lethargy, nausea, reduced appetite, abdominal pain and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes).

People with chronic hepatitis C may also have no symptoms. If you do develop symptoms, they may be very similar to those noted above. The most commonly reported symptom of chronic hepatitis C is fatigue. If you have chronic fatigue, you may feel tired or have no energy, or you may be so tired you have trouble getting through the day. You may also feel not energized or refreshed when you get up in the morning. Regular exercise is the best way to deal with this symptom. Healthy eating can also help you feel less fatigued.

Depending upon what form (genotype) of the hepatitis C virus you are infected with, treatment can cure your illness. However, it is possible to be reinfected with another genotype of hepatitis C virus.

Since 2010, enormous progress has been made in treatment of chronic hepatitis C. New therapies called direct acting antivirals (DAAs) are pills that act on the virus itself to eradicate it from the body, unlike older medicines like interferon injections which work by stimulating an immune response. These new treatments are very effective and can achieve cure rates of over 90%. In most situations now, there is no need for interferon, which was responsible for many of the side effects previously associated with HCV treatment. The new treatment combinations require shorter treatment durations (between 8 to 24 weeks), have reduced side effects and appear to be effective at all stages of the disease.

Because these new therapies are very new, they remain very expensive. As such, drug coverage from both government and private companies may require that your liver disease has progressed to a certain stage before they are willing to cover the cost of these drugs.

Your primary care physician may refer you to a specialist to determine whether you are eligible for treatment. A specialist will help you decide which drug therapy is best for you based on the severity of your liver disease, your virus genotype and whether or not you have been treated in the past.

If you are not presently eligible for treatment, it is important that you make sure to have your liver monitored at least once a year to follow the progression of the disease. You are strongly advised to have regular check-ups of your liver. Although liver failure and cancer can be the end results of this disease, your physician can identify liver changes long before this happens. Treating HCV drastically reduces these outcomes.

No alternative therapies which include herbal remedies, homeopathic medicines, and minerals have been proven safe and effective for treatment of hepatitis C. Be sure to tell your health care provider what medications and alternative therapies you are taking.

How can I avoid getting hepatitis C?

There is no vaccine to protect you against hepatitis C. To avoid contracting hepatitis C, take the following precautions:

  • Adopt safe sex practices; 
  • Avoid sharing personal hygiene items (e.g. razors, toothbrushes, nail clippers); 
  • Do not share needles; and 
  • If you decide to have a tattoo, piercing, manicure or pedicure, ensure that the facility uses single use needles and inks and/or follows proper sterilization procedures.
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Free Online Course about Hepatitis C

In partnership with the BC Centre for Disease Control (BCCDC), we are pleased to offer you Hepatitis C: The Basics,  a free online course that covers basic information about hepatitis C.  It is intended for those living with hepatitis C, whether newly diagnosed or having lived with it for a number of years.
This self-paced course includes videos and plain language narration.

To access the course:
1. Click the “Go for Care” image on the right.
2. After a new window opens, click 'Start Course' 

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PSA featuring Mike MacDonald

English 30 sec TV spot   French 30 sec TV spot

English 30 sec Radio spot   French 30 sec Radio spot

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The information provided here – as well as more information on how to manage chronic hepatitis C – is available in the Canadian Liver Foundation’s hepatitis C pamphlet and in our ‘LIVERight: Healthy Living with Viral Hepatitis’ booklet. These and other CLF publications are available for download in the Publications Library or by calling 1-800-563-5483 or emailing clf@liver.ca

The CLF offers Living with Liver Disease programs for people living with hepatitis C and others forms of liver disease. You can also help others with hepatitis C by volunteering or donating in support of the CLF's research and education programs.

To read about research projects on viral hepatitis click here
To make a donation to support liver health research, click here

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